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2012-2013 学年高三英语一轮复习 语法透析A small step makes a big difference. 1M1 U1 定语从句( 1)一、概念1 定语从句在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧接在先行词后面,但as 引导的修饰全句的定语从句可以放在句首。2 先行词被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词,短语,或整个主句。3 关系词引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词和关系副词。关系词的作用1 引导定语从句,连接主句和从句,相当于一个连词;2 必在从句中作某个句子成份(可以做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语); 常用的关系代词 that、 which、 who、whom、whose、as 、but1. that 多指物,有时也指人。在从句中作主语或宾语,有时作表语,作宾语时常省略。2. which 指物,在从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常省略。3. who 指人,在从句中作主语或宾语。4. whom 指人, 在从句中作宾语, 在口语及非正式文体中常省略。5. whose 可指人,也可指物,在从句中作定语。6. as 指人或物,在从句中作主语或宾语。 当先行词被 the same,as,such 等修饰时,多用 as 引导。7. but 文语, 置于否定词之后 that/whonot, “没有不“, 在从句中作主语,宾语。二、关系代词引导的定语从句 1 which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.(which / that 在句中作宾语)The package which / that you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. which / that 在句中作宾语 2 who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下Is he the man who/that wants to see you(who/that 在从句中作主语)He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.(whom/that 在从句中作宾语)3 whose 用来指人或物, (只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换) ,例如Please pass me the book whose of which cover is green.4 关系代词 that 和 which1 不用 that 的情况a 在引导非限定性定语从句时错The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.b 介词后不能用We depend on the land from which we get our food.2 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况a 在不定代词,如 anything, nothing, everything, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时,只用that,不用 which。All that is needed is a supply of oil. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 2012-2013 学年高三英语一轮复习 语法透析A small step makes a big difference. 2b先行词有 the only, the very, the just 修饰时,只用 that。 He is the very man that helped the girl out of the water.c 先行词为序数词the last、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。The first English book that I read was “The Prince and the Pauper“ by Mark Twin.d 先行词既有人,又有物时。He talked about the teachers and schools that he visited.e 当主句是以 who 或 which 开始的特殊疑问句时,用 that 以避免重复。Who is the person that is standing at the gate.f 关系代词在从句中做表语He is not the man that he used to be.3 用 which 不用 that 的情况a which 可以引导非限制性定语从句,that 不能。 非限制性定语从句将在 M1U3 复习He had failed in the maths exam,which made his father very angry. b which 可以用在介词后, that 不可。That is the house in which Mark Twain used to live. c 一个句子中若有两个定语从句,一个用 that 引导。另一个不能再用 that,而用 which。He bought an American magazine that could give him so much English knowledge and which could help him to kill the time. 5 who、whom 及 whosewho、whom、whose 作为关系代词既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句,其先行词主要指人,其中 whose 也可指物。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时用 who,作宾语或表语时用 whom 或 who,表示所属关系时用 whose。1 whose 的用法whose 表示所属关系,与名词连用,可指人或物。 “whose+名词”在从句中可作主语、动词宾语或介词宾语。a When I looked through the window, I saw a girl whose beauty took my breath away.whose beauty 作主语,whose 指人 a girlb It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at the time.whose importance 作动词 realize 的宾语,whose 指物 a meetingc Atlas in Greek mythology was a kneeling man on whose shoulders the world rested.whose shoulders作介词 on 的宾语2 多用 who 的情况a 关系代词在从句中做主语A friend who helps you in time of need is a real friend.b 先行词为 those, people 时Those who were either fools or unfit for their offices could not see the cloth.c 先行词为 all, anyone, ones, one 指人时One who doesn t work hard will never succeed in his work.d 在 There be 句型中There is a stranger who wants to see you.2012-2013 学年高三英语一轮复习 语法透析A small step makes a big difference. 3e 在被分隔的定语从句中A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you German.f 在有两个定语从句的句子中,其一用 who,其二用 that, 但若先行词后接两个以上的并列定语从句时,后一个必须重复前一个关系代词。The student who was praised at the meeting is the monitor that is very modest and studies very hard.There is a teacher who is always ready to help others and who enjoys what he does.3 who 和 whom 的区别a 不能用 whom 在从句中作主语,只能作宾语或表语。而 who 作主语、宾语、表语均可。例如a The girl who we supposed was drowned came back.b The girl who/whom we supposed drowned came back.b whom 在作动词或介词宾语时,特别是在口语中,一般省去,或用 who、that 代替。而在以介词结尾的定语从句中最好不用 whom。例如I think you should stay faithful to the person whom you re married to. 上面一句一般被认为是不正确的,宜改为I think you should stay faithful to the person who/that you’re married to. 口语中I think you should stay faithful to the person you’re married to.I think you should stay faithful to the person to whom you’re married. 正式文体中c 在非限制性定语从句中,最好 whom 用作宾语,且不能省略。His mother, whom he loved dearly, died in 1818.6 关系代词 who,whom 和 which 的选用 在某些特定的情况下,要使用 who,whom 或 which,一般不使用 that。 ①非限制性定语从句中不用 that,指人时用 who 或 whom,指物时用 which。 Mr Wang,who Was my er teacher, retired last year. 此句中的 who 不能用 that This is the book,which he bought yesterday.②介词后用 whom 指人,用 which 指物,不用 that。D0 you know the boy to whom I spoke just nowThis is the factory in which he works.③如果有两个定语从句,其中前一句的关系代词用了 that,后一句宜用 which。Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which Was newly open to us.练习巩固一、用适当的关系词填空1. Mr Black is going to Beijing in October, ________is the best season there.2. I will never forget the days ________I spent with your family.3. I ll never forget the last day ________ we spent together.4. Do you still remember the place________ we visited last week5. Have you ever been to Hangzhou, _______is famous for the West Lake6. Who _______ knows him wants to make friends with him7. What else was there in my brother _______ you didn t like8. He lives in the room _________ window faces to the south.9. This is Mr. John for _________ son I brought a book yesterday.10. This is Mr. John for ________ I bought a book yesterday.2012-2013 学年高三英语一轮复习 语法透析A small step makes a big difference. 4二、根据提示完成句子1. Last night, John was answering the letters that ____________________ 寄给他的 during the past two weeks. arrive 2. Learning strategies, to ___________________ 老师们认为 importance, have not yet drawn enough attention of students. attach 3. My mother was so proud of all _______________ 我所做的 that she rewarded me with a trip to Beijing. do 4. I can never forget ____________________________________ 我们一起度过的日子. spend5. Steven Spielberg, _______________________ 他的妈妈是老师, was born in 1946 in a small town in America. be6. It was the first time ______________________ 我参观 the Great Wall of China. visit7. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, _________________________ 其后果十分严重. effects8. Tree after tree went down, cut down by the water, ___________________ 一定有 three meters deep. be三、单项填空1. 2011全国卷I The prize will go to the writer ________ story shows the most imagination.A. that B. which C. whose D. what2. 2011上海卷 You’ll find taxis waiting at the bus station ____ you can hire to reach your host family.A. which B. where C. when D. as3. 2011山东卷)The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other.A. they B. where C. what D. that4. 2011福建卷)She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students ____ allows them to communicate freely with each other.A. which B. where C. what D. who5. 2010 湖南I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school I met in the English speech contest last year. A. who B. where C. when D. which6. 2010 山东That’s the new machine ______ parts are too small to be seen. A. that B. which C. whose D. What7. 2010 陕西 The old temple _______ roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. A. where B. which C. its D. whose8. 2010 全国ⅡI refuse to accept the blame for something ________was someone else’s fault. A. who B. that C. as D. what9. 2010北京Children who are not active or diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. A. what B. whose C. which D. that10. 2010 重庆In china, the number of cities is increasing ________development is recognized across the world. A. where B. which C. whose D. that2012-2013 学年高三英语一轮复习 语法透析A small step makes a big difference. 5答案一、用适当的关系词填空1. which 2. that/which 3. that 4. that/which 5. which 6.that 7. that 8. whose 9. whose 10. whom 二、根据提示完成句子1. that had arrived for him2. which teachers attach3. that I had done4. the days which we spent together5. whose mother was a teacher6. that I had visited7. whose effects are very serious8. which must have been三、单项填空1-5. CADAA 6-10. CDBBC
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