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弯坡路面上的车辆荷载仿真分析.pdf

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摘 要车辆接受路面的不平度激励,产生不同于静载的动态荷载,并以这种变化的荷载作用于路面上,使路面产生相应的响应,加速路面平整度的衰减。但是道路结构在运动车辆荷载作用下的力学行为相当复杂,除受路面平整度的影响外,特殊行驶工况对车辆动荷载的影响也很重要。山区高速公路由于地形复杂,不同形式的平纵组合所形成的弯坡,是山区高速公路线形中常见的组成部分,将路面的不平度因素和弯坡行驶工况因素结合起来进行研究,分析弯坡路段的道路破坏情况,显得愈发重要。通过典型重型车辆和轴载调查,选择东风EGll68Gl2型轴为仿真样车将重型车作一定程度的简化,利用ADAMS/Car建立了429自由度整车动力学模型,主要包括前/后悬架、转向系、发动机和轮胎等子系统模型;通过VC编程生成非实测弯坡路面属性文件,建立相应弯坡路面模型,以便进行车轮动荷载的影响因素分析;综合各因素对实测数据应用路面文件自动生成软件编制实测弯坡路面谱文件,建立实测弯坡路面模型,用于进行弯坡路面与平直路面的动荷载对比分析运用ADAMS/Car对弯坡路面上的行车动荷载进行了分析和求解。系统研究了弯坡路面特征参数弯度和坡度、路面不平度、行车速度、载重等因素对车辆动荷载的影响规律。结果表明,车辆动载荷系数随着弯度的增大而逐渐靠近1,说明附加动载随着弯度的增大波动变小;车辆动载荷系数随着上、下坡坡度的增加,而逐渐远离l,说明附加动载随着坡度的增大波动变大;车辆动载荷系数随着车速的增加,而远离l,说明车速越高,振动越严重;车辆动载荷系数随着路面波形幅值的增加而远离1,说明路面不平度越大,车辆振动越严重;空车动载对路面的破坏作用不容忽视。因此,基于弯坡路面,综合路面平整度因素和车辆行驶速度及车辆轴重等因素,通过建模和仿真分析,研究重型车对路面的动荷载作用,确定车辆动荷载影响系数规律,从而为高速公路路面设计提供合理的车辆荷载,为路面动态设计方法乃至设计规范的制订做前期准备工作。关键词动荷载;弯坡路面;平整度;重型卡车;仿真AB STRACTUnde玛omg the pavement roughness excitation,the dynamic load that is differemthe static load is generated.Affected by the dynamic load,the corresponding responseof the pavement will be caused.But mechanical behavior caused by dyna商c loads ofthe vehicle under the road structure is very complex.Pavement roughness is the mainreason for dyna血c loads,the special driving condition should also be all importantfactor.The curved ramp road ed by of different s of flat and vertical ClL Vecombination is the common linear part of mountain highway.The analysis of the roaddamage based on curved ramp road becomes more and more important.Through the surveys of typical heavy-duty vehicles and axle 10ad,DF EGl 168G12 Shard was selected as the simulation prototype.Heavy vehicles will be simplified tosome extent,and the vehicle dynamic model of 429一DOF was established by ADAMS/Car,including front/lear suspension steering system,engine and tires and othersubsystem models.The property files of non-measured curved ramp surface weregenerated by VC program,and the corresponding surfac.2 models were achieved fora砌yzmg dynamic Load.According to the automatically generated software of propertyfiles,the road flies of measured curved ramp surface were created丽tll integratingvarious factors,and SO弱the surface model developed,which can analyze the dynamicloads betwcgn the wh∞Is and the pavement on curved ramp road and straight roadcomparatively.The dynamic load under curved ramp road is analyzed and solved byADAMS/Car,and systematically study the pavement feature parameterscurvatureslope,pavement roughness,speed,and load and SO on.The results show that the vehicle DLC is approaching 1 wim the pavementcurvature increase,suggesting the additional dynamie load fluctuated谢m the pavementcurvature increase.The DLC is moving away from 1谢m the pavement slope increase,suggesting the additional dynamic load fluctuated with the pavement slope increase.The DLC is moving away from 1 with the speed increase,suggesting the vibration ismore serious、析tll the higher speed.The DLC is moving away from 1、析m the pavementamplitude increase,suggesting the vibration is more serious晰m the amplitude increase.Besides,the destructive effect on pavement of the dynamic load of锄婀vehicle Callnot be neglected.Therefore,based on the curved ramp road,the dynamic loads affected by thepavement roughness,the vehicle speed and SO on were analyzed through modeling andsimulation.The dynamic load and the permanent deation of different pavementpoints were calculated at different service time and the pavement roughness of differentservice time were obtained.According to dynamic load ination,the changing trendof DLC was achieved,which can provide the basis and reference for pavementmanagement and decision optimization.KEY WORDSthe dynamic loads;curved ramp road;roughness;heavy cluty truck;simulation目 录第一章绪论11.1问题的提出和研究意义l1.1.1问题的提出l1.1.2研究意义l1.2国内外的研究现状和发展31.2.1车辆动力学研究现状..31.2.2车辆和路面相互作用.31.3主要研究内容5第二章车一路系统相关参数调查和分析62.1典型重型车辆和轴载调查62.1.1典型路段车辆组成和轴载调查.62.1.2典型路段车辆组成和轴载调查分析.82.2平整度及行驶车辆稳定性分析92.2.1路面不平度分析。92.2.2弯坡路面行驶车辆的稳定性分析ll2.3小结。15第三章车辆荷载分析.1 63.1车辆荷载分类.1 63.1.1静态荷载163.1.2动态荷载163.2多自由度系统振动理论。173.3四自由度12型车辆振动模型.1 93.4车辆动荷载评价指标。213.5小结一22第四章车辆系统建模234.1 ADAMS/Car建模思路234.2车辆参数及模型简化一234.3重型卡车模型。244.3.1前悬架模型264.3.2后悬架模型294.3.3转向系统模型304.3.4轮胎模型304.3.5车身模型324.3.6整车模型334.4小结一35第五章路面系统建模。365.1 ADAMS/Cat道路模型.365.1.1 2D道路.365.1.2 3D道路.375.2非实测弯坡路面模型395.2.1弯坡VC程序395.2.2非实测弯坡路面模型415.3实测弯坡路面模型一425.3.1插值函数的生成425.3.2平面网格划分435.3.3路面模型的生成435.4本章小结.46第六章车一路系统仿真分析.476.1整车仿真的一般步骤一476.2车轮动荷载影响因素分析486.2.1不同坡度对车轮动荷载的影响486.2.2不同弯度对车轮动荷载的影响586.2.3不同车速对车轮动荷载的影响一636.2.4路面不平度对车轮动荷载的影响676.2.5轴重对车轮动荷载的影响686.3实测弯坡路面和平直路面的车轮动荷载分析对比.696.3.1实测弯坡路面的车轮动荷载分析706.3.2平直路面的车轮动荷载分析706.3.2不同路面的车轮动荷载对比726.4本章小结.72第七章结论及展望。737.1本文主要研究成果和结论一737.2工作展望。731ill[谢............................................................................................。74参考文献75攻读学位期间取得的研究成果。78
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