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山东大学硕士学位论文目 录中文摘要一lABSlRACT4引言7一、生平与时代.9一时代背景9--家学渊源14二、周易性质观18一本卜筮以立教一1 8二理气皆蕴于易。21三“易言天道尽在人事”22四“易为君子谋必兼为小人谋”。23三、经传关系拟议成变化、籍释集大成.26一易经与易传传本于经、补经之未及..26二易传内部“十翼传皆另申一义”28三易传与历代易说以易传为本29四、象数与义理关系“舍象数则无从知义理”.3 1一象数为体道理即在象数中32二义理为用求通乎义理33五、解易思想与体例。36一并观贞悔卦37二“论卦必明其根乾根坤”一40三论继卦。41六、易学中的哲学思想.46一“因器求道”的道器观。46--“阴阳并重”的气化论一481、天道层面48山东大学硕士学位论文2、人事层面50三“气化见心”的心性论..5 l四“极深研几”的工夫论53l、极深研几542、观于易之取象55结语一57参考文献.61致谢64Ⅱj■■]JflfJIII叫lJ{山东大学硕士学位论文CONTENTSAbstract in Chinese............】【Abstract in English.4Inn oduction...7I LIFE AND BACKGROUND.............91.1 Academic Background.91.2 Paternal Teaching and Influence...........14II COMMENTS ON THE NATURE OF ZHOU-YI.........1 82.1 Yi-ology Comes from Divination182.2 Yi·-ology Contains Li and Oi....212.3 Yi-ology Concentrates 011 Human Affairs........222.4 Yi-ology Concerns、玩tll Both Gentleman and Villain。23Ill Comments on The textbook of Zhou-yi and Its Commentaries263.1 Comments on Zhou-yi and YizhuanYi-zhuan Supplement I Ching一263.2 Comments on Yi-zhuanEach Concerns One Aspect。283.3 Comments on Yi.zhuan and CommentariesYi.zhuan is Fundamental。29N Comments 011 the Theories ofXiang-shu and Principle3 14.1 Xiangshu is BodyPrinciple Lies in Xiang-shu.324.2 Principle is FunctionPrinciple is Purpose.33V COMMENTS ON THE LAYOUT OF EXPLANATION OF ZHOU-YI.......365.1 Inspect Both Zhen-gua and Huigua.375.2 Investigate the Origin of Gua405.3 Comments 011 Ji-gua..41VI THE PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES IN HIS YI-OLOGY............466.1 The Theory of Dao-qiPursue Dao through Qi.466.2 111e Theory ofY m-yangTreat Y.myang Equally..486.2.1 On the Nature Level486.2.2 On the Human Level..506.3 The Theory of Heart-mindObserve Mind from Qi-hua一5 16.4 The Theory of Moral PracticeExtremely Deep Study.53m■}【I’【■。。‘l}}卜山东大学硕士学位论文6.4.1 Extremely Deep Study..536.4.2 Observe the Origin of the Symbolic Images of Gua。55CONCLUSIONS..57RErERE NCES.6 1ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...64IV山东大学硕士学位论文中文摘要魏荔彤是清代理学家,易学家,著有大易通解。魏荔彤的易学思想归宗于程朱,解易“务期义理根于象数,辞传本乎卦爻。“他以“与心相融会而得其通’’为宗旨,以义理与象数、辞传与卦爻的统一为原则,主张解易应以易经本具的卦爻辞传为根本,由象数推演义理,据卦爻象数阐释辞传。在周易性质问题上,他主本卜筮以立教,承认易卜筮之书之本来面目,认为易正是通过卜筮发挥其“通志定业断疑“的作用的。通过对其思想的阐释,我们认为魏荔彤以卜筮之所以灵验之最终依据在于易“无事无物之理不备’’,以卜筮判定吉凶之最终依据在于象辞之中所蕴含的义理,而非别有所谓神明。可以说,魏氏之对卜筮的重视与其说在于其趋吉避凶的实际效果,毋宁说在于其所运用的取象比类、推象求理的方法。他之所谓卜筮,是在通晓易的整体结构、各卦含义的基础上,将自身的切实处境带入其中并加以思考。这种卜筮观,仍是以义理为主的,是对儒家理性主义传统的继承。在经传关系问题上,魏荔彤以易传为孔子所作,传之释经并非单纯的阐释,而是诠解中又有发挥、引申、创造。可以说他已注意到了易经与易传思想上的不同,但囿于儒学的传统观念,未能继续深入地探讨其所以不同的原因,并进而认识到二者的根本差异;而是在“四圣同揆’’观念的引导下,认为其差异只在易传是对易经的弥缝补缀。在易传与历代易说的关系问题上他主张以易传为本。后儒之说应以易传为本,这对于批判解易者的穿凿附会是有积极意义的,但同时对于易学诠释之时代性有所忽视。易传在当时也是它所处时代的易学家的研究成果,也有其时代性。就这一点说,易传与历代易说没有本质区别。历代易说之特定时代性、特殊义涵,对易学研究之贡献都是不可替代的。在象数义理关系问题上魏荔彤坚持象数义理不可分,继承程颐“体用一源,显微无间“思想,以象数为蕴含义理之象数,义理为蕴于象数中之义理。同时有取于王弼“寻言以观象,寻象以观意“的言、象、意关系论,主张由象数推究义理。但他并不主“得意忘象一,并未将意、象关系对立起来,而是始终坚持认为道山东大学硕士学位论文理即在象数中,以象数为义理之载体。魏荔彤的解卦思想提出并观贞悔卦的主张,特别是受易传乾坤为“易之蕴“、“易之门一思想及“乾坤生六子“说的启发,提出根卦思想,创立继卦说。首先将六十四卦分别划归为根乾根坤两类,继之以对阴阳属性相同并且阴阳爻数也相同的卦之间所具有的象数义理上的承继关系的探究。再结合错卦、综卦、卦变等方法的综合考察,构成了一个颇具系统性的严密的解卦体系。魏荔彤的继卦思想于六十四卦之间递衍关系的独特阐释,虽没有提出不同的卦序,但他所侧重的已是卦性及阴阳爻数相同的卦之间在象数义理上的承继、转化关系的开显。这既不同于‘序卦传之单行承接,也不同于杂卦传之着意错综,是他的创见,是他因象求理的象数义理关系论的具体运用,丰富与发展了传统的解易理论。但他以“于心求有得一为其解易宗旨,在具体的解易过程中,势必难免会出现主观性的失误。魏荔彤在本体论问题上虽仍继承朱熹理本论思想,但也受时代思潮的影响,在哲学中贯彻了经世致用的精神,表现出重视气化作用的倾向。他在承认“理“之主宰性、先在性地位的前提下,尤其强调理气之相互依存、不可分离性。就道器关系思想而言,他认为道与器在实然层面上是一体无二的。“上下形道皆可以形言之“,由于形而上的道无形无象、难以把捉,因此若要求道,莫过于因可见求不可见,莫过于因器求道。魏荔彤继承朱熹阴阳互为体用、王夫之“乾坤并建“、“阴阳并建“思想,明确反对扶阳抑阴的说法,提出“阴阳并重“的气论思想。他认为就本体层面而言无所谓阴气、阳气,只是一气的运行就发用层面而言,阴阳之运行虽间或各有过与不及之时,然而在总体上看却仍是无时无刻不均平。分而言之,阴阳之气皆有中正和平之时,也皆有过与不及之时。故阴阳均有美德与凶德,均有所谓君子小人。然究极言之,阴阳皆自太极而来,本自均平,自然发用流行生成万物而本无所谓君子、小人,更无所谓扶阳抑阴。此说应是对周敦颐将人性分为刚善、刚恶、柔善、柔恶、中五种状态的人性论思想的一种引申与发挥。在心性论问题上,魏荔彤重视气化的作用,认为气化的道理与人的心性道理相通。他以气化探讨心性的问题。所谓“气化见心一就是说通过气化的作用,天理赋予人之心,成为人之性。而这个所谓天理、人性便是“乾元“。“乾元一具有2■山东大学硕士学位论文生生之德,人性也就本具仁而为善。魏荔彤以人心之理论天地之心,便打通了人性与天命;以“乾元’’为天地之心,便保证了人心之理、人性的善。同时“气化见心”的心性论本身便已容纳了气禀差异的因素,而得以完满地解释现实人性中之不善的情况。总之,魏荔彤的易学思想带有返本归源、不事穷索的直捷简易、清新灵秀气象。他并继承了宋学大胆怀疑的精神,虽以程朱为宗,但并不盲从附会。在哲学体系建构上虽没有多少创建,多固守程朱理学藩篱;同时又受时代思潮影响表现出重视“气化“作用的倾向;但在具体的解易思想、体例上则颇多心得。关键词解卦体例;经传关系;阴阳并重;气化见心3l‘I}}卜山东大学硕士学位论文ABSTRACTWei Litongo who lived in Qing Dynasty9 was a well-known thinker in the history ofYi-ology.His most important work is Dayi Tongjie.His theories of Zhou-yi inheritedCheng-zhu’S YVology.He called himself”followed what Zhu Xi said”.He believed thatPrinciple lies in Xiang-shu,and Yi-zhuan ODmCS from Gua and Yao.He claimed thatwhen explain Zhou-yi,we should always base on the words of Gua and Yao,anddeduce Principle from Xiangshu.He considered grasping Principle as the aim oflearning.So he argued that when explain Zhou-yi,WC should take C-ua,Yao and theword of Gua and Yao,which created by saints,as starting point and final foundation;comprehending Principle硒standard;and the unity of Principle and Xiang-shu,Yi-zhnan and Gua-yao as principle.On the nature of Zhou-yi,he inherited Zhu Xi’S thought.He considered thatYi-ology comes from divination and play its role through divination.Through thedeclaration of his thoughts,we could say that he take Principle as the ultimate reasonwhy divination efficacious.So the reason for Wei Litong’S attach importance todivination lies not in the practical effect of good fortune,but in its approach.He s calleddivination based on Principle,which inherited Confucian rationalist tradition.On the relationship between Zhou-yi and Yi-zhuan,he believed that Yi-zhuan iscreated by Confucius.Yi-zhusn’S explanation of Zhou-yi consists of creation andextending.We could say that he had noticed the difference between Zhou-yi andYi.zhuan.But confined to the traditional ideas of Confucianism,he did not discuss thereasons for this difference.Instead,he believed the difference lies only in explanation.On the relationship between Yi-zhuan and other commentaries,he tookⅥ-zhuan asthe authority of all commentaries.There is positive significance in this for the criticismof strained interpretations and farfetched analogies,but at the sanlc time neglected them of interpretation.Yi-zhuan,the samc as other commentaries,has its epochalcharacter.Both Yi-zhuan and other commentaries,a陀irreplaceable.On the relationship between the Theories of Xiang-shu and Principle,he arguedthat Principle lies in Xiang·shu,and takes Xiang-shu as body and Principle as function.He inherited‘ the unity between substance and function,the consistency between4山东大学硕士学位论文appearance and latency ’of Cheng Yi,and the thoughts of relationship between Yan,Xiang and Principle of Wang Bi.He did not set Xiangshu against Principle,but arguedthat we should pursue Principle through Xiang-shu.On the Layout of explanation of Zhou-yi,he presented the inspecting of bothZhen-gua and HIli·gua,the investigating of the Origin of Gua and Ji-gua as his idea.Firstly,according to the nature of Yin and Yang,the sixty-four Gua arc classified intotwo classes.Then WC could take further study on the relationship between the Gua ofsame nature.And with the nsC of other ways of explanation,he treated Zhou-yi as ainalienable organic relation whole.Wbi Litong’s idea of Ji-gua,different from Xu-guaand Za-gua,is his creative idea,which enriched and developed the traditional theory ofexplanation of Zhou-yi.But the purpose of his explanation,which lay emphasis on mind,Was hard to avoid subjective mistakes.On the ontology of Wrei Litong’S Yi-ology,he inherited Zhu Xi’s theory.But at thesame time,he Was influenced by the ethos.His philosophy carried out practical spiritsand displayed the trend of valuing the function of Qi-hua.In the premise of admittingthe dominating position of Li,Wd Litong especially emphasized on theinterdependency relationship between Li and Qi.On the relationship between Dao and Qi,he considered that in reality they arcinseparable.Because of the invisibility of Dao,SO we should pursue Dao through Qi.On the relationship between‰and Yang,he inherited Zhu Xi and Wang Fuzhi’Stheory and opposed the idea of inhibiting巧矗and strengthening Yang。He believed thatIn the natural level,陆and Yang are just one;and in the human level,bom恤andYang has good and evil.This could be seen as the inheriting of Zhou Dunyi’s theory ofhuman nature.On Heart-mind theory.W.ei Litong attached importance to Qi.He believed that theprinciple of Qihua and Heart-mind are communicated、析tll each other.He discussed theproblem of Heart-mind through Qi··hua,which considers that through Qi·-hua,heavenlyprinciple is endowed to heart,and turned into human nature.And this heavenly principleand human nature,which is Qian-yuan,possesses the function of unceasing generation.Through this idea,W色i Litong got through heavenly principle and human nature,andensured that human nature is good.And at the same time,through Qi-hua,he could alsoexplain the phenomenon of evil in reality.5
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